December 31, 2011
By Chris Deliso
A two-year DEA undercover operation, which played out in exotic international locales in cooperation with police forces of several states, demonstrates that the Balkans is still perceived as a safe haven for ‘business’ and logistical activities by major international terrorism and organized crime entities.
The operation, part of which came to light when arrests were made in July of 2011, resulted in November with Romania’s extradition to the US of two foreign nationals reportedly seeking to use drug money to fund weaponry for Hizbollah.
In December 2011, further charges were laid against three financial institutions allegedly linked with money laundering for Hizballah, which has come under increased scrutiny as tensions with Iran continue to increase.
The intriguing details have been revealed in press releases from the US Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of New York. These documents affirm the complexity of today’s global terrorism-organized crime nexus and also, though details are not given, raise some interesting questions regarding operational activities and what can be understood from them.
On November 17, Preet Bharara, the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, announced the Romanian government’s extraditions of Siavosh Hehareh, from Iran, and a Turk, Cetin Aksu. The press release (.PDF) detailing the charges stated that the two had been “conspiring to provide narcotics and, in the case of Aksu, material support to Hizballah through an individual whom they believed to be an associate of Hizballah, but who was in fact, a United States Drug Enforcement Administration (‘DEA’) confidential source.” It is not clear whether the latter was an actual undercover operative or a low-level terrorist financier who had possibly struck a plea bargain to cooperate. It was also not made clear whether the accused persons were representing a larger group.
The US Attorney stated that the Turkish citizen was also charged “with agreeing to buy a deadly laundry list of weapons on behalf of an associate of Hizballah,” and added that “this case provides fresh evidence of the growing nexus between drug trafficking, weapons trafficking and terrorists, a nexus with the potential to threaten our national security.”
Operational Chronology and Details
Since the background of the DEA’s ‘confidential source’ remains unknown, as does much else about the government’s planning rationale, it is difficult to estimate whether the Balkans was chosen as a major theater for the operation because of specific pre-existing links with the persons involved, or because it was deemed an advantageous or preferable area in which to operate by the US. Probably both are true.
However, what it does show beyond doubt, by virtue of the fact that the suspicions of those charged were not aroused, is that the region is perceived as safe ground for conducting negotiations between terrorist and criminal organizations. Perhaps one effect of this operation will thus be to make such groups more cautious about operating in the region in the future.
The government indictment makes visible a timeline for the operation (though pre-planning must have been extensive and thus date the whole process back by several months or longer). Apparently, back in June of 2010, the Iranian had “a series of meetings in countries including Turkey, Romania, and Greece with DEA confidential sources (the ‘CSs’), at least one of whom represented himself/herself as an associate of Hizballah.”
These meetings and a series of phone calls thereafter, resulted in an agreement to sell “hundreds of kilograms of high quality heroin” to the supposed Hizbollah associate, with it being made clear that the profits would be used to purchase weapons for the group.
The operation became significantly bigger several months later, when as a result of these meetings, the DEA source was introduced to Aksu and another individual, Bachar Wehbe, according to the press release.
“Beginning in February 2011, in Romania, Cyprus, Malaysia, and elsewhere, Aksu and Wehbe agreed to purchase military-grade weaponry from the CSs on behalf of Hizballah. In those meetings, and in telephone calls and email messages, Aksu and Wehbe discussed the purchase of American-made Stinger surface-to-air missiles (“SAMs”), Igla SAMs, AK-47 and M4 assault rifles, M107 .50 caliber sniper rifles, and ammunition, from (among other places) an American military base in Germany.”
Then, in April 2011, the action resumed in the Balkans when the DEA source received a heroin sample (of 1kg, according to the press release) “from a co-conspirator of Henareh’s in Bucharest, Romania, in order to inspect its quality, and in anticipation of a subsequent, multi-hundred kilogram load.”
Things proceeded smoothly, and on June 13, 2011, Aksu and Wehbe “signed a written agreement for the purchase of 48 American-made Stinger SAMs, 100 Igla SAMs, 5,000 AK-47 assault rifles, 1,000 M4 rifles, and 1,000 Glock handguns, for a total price of approximately $9.5 million” in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
The press release further adds that while negotiating the arms deal, Wehbe “stated that he was purchasing the weapons on instructions from Hizballah. Shortly thereafter, Wehbe and others caused approximately $100,000 to be transferred to the CSs as a down payment for the weapons purchase.”
The alleged plan was thwarted, however, when the go-ahead was given for a coordinated international police operation. Henareh and Aksu were arrested in Bucharest on July 25, 2011, while authorities in the Republic of the Maldives arrested Wehbe on the same day.
In the November 17 announcement of Romania’s extradition, Attorney General Bharara praised the “outstanding work” of several domestic and international partners. On the US side, these included the DEA’s Special Operations Division and its Country Offices in Istanbul, Kuala Lumpur, Copenhagen, New Delhi, Athens, Cyprus, and Kabul, as well as the Department of Justice’s Office of International Affairs, its National Security Division, and the State Department.
Among international partners, gratitude was expressed to the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative Regional Center for Combating Trans-Border Crime (SECI), the Romanian Police, the Turkish Police, the Malaysian Police, the Hellenic Police, the Cyprus Police, and the Maldives Police Service. Among these, it would seem that the Romanian security services (discussed by Balkanalysis.com earlier in 2011) had a particularly crucial role in monitoring the suspects internationally and while in the country.
Balkan Connections and Interesting Particulars
This operation shows, as stated above, that the Balkans remains fertile soil for serious organized crime and logistics planning between criminal entities and terrorist backers. Security experts have frequently made the point that the reason why little actual terrorist activities occurs in the region is precisely in order to keep the area ‘safe’ for business.
It is not surprising that Turkey and Greece were sites of such meetings as these countries have a history of being used in this regard. Malaysia, a peaceful and moderate Muslim country, also has a similar history- for example, the so-called “al Qaeda Summit” was held there in 2000. And much business from Malaysia to the Balkans, whether legitimate or illegitimate, goes through Turkey and intercessors there.
Romania is a more interesting case, as it has a much lower profile among Islamist groups. Speaking at a conference in spring 2011 in Skopje, one Romanian mufti voiced concern that an Islamic extremist fringe group was presenting a major challenge to the moderate Muslim community. However, Romanian security sources were later skeptical of the charge, and have downplayed the risk. Nevertheless, Romania too has a historic relationship with the greater Middle East and (as a recent Balkanalysis.com report indicated) there are several thousand investments in the country from Iran, the main supporter of Hizballah outside of Lebanon. This relationship could conceivably give the organization ‘legitimate cover’ to operate in the country.
The most fascinating detail of the press release, however, is the stunning claim that the DEA confidential source and the alleged plotters had planned to acquire some of their desired high-tech weaponry from “an American military base in Germany.” How could the latter have expected such an implausible outcome to be attained? This might indicate that the plotters knew of, or at least assumed, that they had at least one ‘true believer’ on base, whether a local employee or even a US soldier.
While both possibilities would be alarming, the inherent complexity of removing weapons from a US military base and transiting them internationally should have set off red flags with the plotters. And their own alleged signing of written agreements and indeed discussing such arms sales by email also seems remarkably reckless. An organization as secretive as Hizbollah would be expected to be cleverer than this. But with no further testimony given as to the level of contact the plotters had with the group, it remains difficult to speculate.
It is thus not clear whether the implosion of this plot in July 2011 lent any greater urgency to Hizballah’s famed internal security service, already on high alert due to heightening tensions between Iran, the US and Israel during the course of the year, and which has been on the offensive in recent months. Most notable was the roll-up of alleged CIA sources in Lebanon revealed in November 2011 by Hizballah- widely(Video) blamed on ‘sloppy tradecraft’ on the part of the US by analysts, who noted that Hizbollah’s counter-intelligence actions have significantly affected US capabilities.
The US is also increasingly concerned about a proxy war with Hizbollah coming from Latin America, where the group has established connections for decades. The US has taken further action against the group since the Balkan weapons-for-drugs case, including a freeze on a Lebanese-Canadian bank accused of laundering money for the group through a used-car resale program to West Africa.
A December 15, 2011 press release (.PDF) outlines the case, which also drew upon the resources of the Treasury Department. The US Attorney and DEA alleged in it the existence of “a massive, international scheme in which Lebanese financial institutions, including a bank and two exchange houses linked to Hizballah, used the U.S. financial system to launder narcotics trafficking and other criminal proceeds through West Africa and back into Lebanon.”…..
The Complaint also seeks civil money laundering penalties totaling
$483,142,568 from these entities, representing the sum of the funds they laundered.
Manhattan U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara said: “The intricate scheme laid out in today’s
complaint reveals the deviously creative ways that terrorist organizations are funding themselves
and moving their money, and it puts into stark relief the nexus between narcotics trafficking and
terrorism. Today, we are putting a stranglehold on a major source of that funding by disrupting a
vast and far-flung network that spanned three continents. Together with our law enforcement
partners in the U.S. and around the globe, our commitment to disrupting and dismantling
Hizballah and other terrorist organizations is unwavering.”
* Manhattan U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara and the albanian crime Boss Ilir Meta and Almir Rrapo
Waffen gegen Drogen: 12 CIA Agenten wurden im Iran festgenommen, welche aus Albanien Waffen besorgten
Hintergründe: zur Festname der Attentäter, welche sich auch durch ihren Sprengstoff verrieten.